Projects by Students
1. Solar cars are often fitted with gauges as seen in conventional cars. To keep the car running smoothly, the driver must keep an eye on these gauges to spot possible problems
Solar cars are often fitted with gauges as seen in conventional cars. To keep the car running smoothly, the driver must keep an eye on these gauges to spot possible problems. Cars without gauges almost always feature wireless telemetry, which allows the driver's team to monitor the car's energy consumption, solar energy capture and other parameters and free the driver to concentrate on driving.
Solar cars combine technology typically used in the aerospace, bicycle, alternative energy and automotive industries. The design of a solar vehicle is severely limited by the amount of energy input into the car. Most solar cars have been built for the purpose of solar car races. Since 2011 solar-powered cars have been designed for daily use on public roads: List of solar cars (with homologation).
Solar cars depend on a solar array that uses photovoltaic cells (PV cells) to convert sunlight into electricity. Unlike solar thermal energy which converts solar energy to heat for either household purposes, industrial purposes or to be converted to electricity, PV cells directly convert sunlight into electricity. When sunlight (photons) strike PV cells, they excite electrons and allow them to flow, creating an electrical current. PV cells are made of semiconductor materials such as silicon and alloys of indium, gallium and nitrogen.
- Used for land transport
- Can't attain the same speed as a typical family car
- The battery pack in a typical solar car is sufficient to allow the car to go 250 miles (400 km) without sun, and allow the car to continuously travel at speeds of 60 mph (97 km/h).
2. Testing of RO System: Reverse Osmosis i.e RO is a technology that is used to remove a large majority of contaminants from water by pushing the water under pressure through a semi-permeable membrane.
Reverse Osmosis i.e RO is a technology that is used to remove a large majority of contaminants from water by pushing the water under pressure through a semi-permeable membrane.
Osmosis is a process where a weak saline solution will tend to migrate to a strong saline solution. Examples of osmosis are when plant roots absorb water from the soil and our kidneys absorb water from our blood.
Reverse Osmosis is the process of Osmosis in reverse. Whereas Osmosis occurs naturally without energy required, to reverse the process of osmosis you need to apply energy to the more saline solution.
It is important to understand that an RO system employs cross filtration rather than standard filtration where the contaminants are collected within the filter media. With cross filtration, the solution passes through the filter, or crosses the filter, with two outlets: the filtered water goes one way and the contaminated water goes another way. To avoid build up of contaminants, cross flow filtration allows water to sweep away contaminant build up and also allow enough turbulence to keep the membrane surface clean.
Reverse Osmosis is capable of removing up to 99%+ of the dissolved salts (ions), particles, colloids, organics, bacteria and pyrogens from the feed water (although an RO system should not be relied upon to remove 100% of bacteria and viruses). An RO membrane rejects contaminants based on their size and charge.
Reverse Osmosis is very effective in treating brackish, surface and ground water for both large and small flows applications.
- To produce demineralized or deionized water
- To remove contaminants from water
3. An electric bicycle, also known as an e-bike or booster bike, is a bicycle with an integrated electric motor which can be used for propulsion
An electric bicycle, also known as an e-bike or booster bike, is a bicycle with an integrated electric motor which can be used for propulsion. There is a great variety of e-bikes available worldwide, from e-bikes that only have a small motor to assist the rider's pedal-power (i.e., pedelecs) to somewhat more powerful e-bikes which tend closer to moped-style functionality: all, however, retain the ability to be pedalled by the rider and are therefore not electric motorcycles. E-bikes use rechargeable batteries and the lighter varieties can travel up to 25 to 32 km/h (16 to 20 mph), depending on the laws of the country in which they are sold, while the more high-powered varieties can often do in excess of 45 km/h (28 mph).
Depending on local laws, many e-bikes (e.g., pedelecs) are legally classified as bicycles rather than mopeds or motorcycles, so they are not subject to the more stringent laws regarding their certification and operation, unlike the more powerful two-wheelers which are often classed as electric motorcycles. E-bikes can also be defined separately and treated as a specific vehicle type in many areas of legal jurisdiction.
E-bikes are the electric motor-powered versions of motorized bicycles.
Designed by : Ishu Bansal,Ankur Verma,Rajan Kumar,Sagar Kumar,Arshad Ali
- Eco-friendly, as no engine to be used.
- Environmentally desirable as they shall not harm/impact the environment
- Comfortable to commute in future
- E-bike available in the showroom works on 24 Volts however this newly designed e-bike shall work on a minimum 12 volts.
- Use batteries to charge. Hence, after being fully charged, the e-bike can cover a distance of 25 to 30 km.
- Carry weight up to 100 Kg.
- Mainly designed for women and old people.
- Economical to maintain.
- On bulk manufacturing, this could be made available to a common man at a cost of Rs.7600/-.
- At present the newly-designed model is one-seater however could be used as a regular motor cycle later.
The test-drive conducted by the students received huge applause from the scientific community and the admirers present at the show.
4. Smart Ration Card (https://youtu.be/Rg9C4wm2XRY)
Ration card is a very important document for every person in India. It acts as an identity/ address proof. Along with this, ration card is used to purchase various necessary items like rice, wheat ,sugar, oil etc. from the ration shops at a cheaper rate, issued by the government. In this system, it is predefined that how much quantity must be given to the family according to the total number of family members.
So, when the customer purchases any item, the shopkeeper has to fill up the details and the amount purchased by the customer in a diary given by the government for the records. But if the material was not sell up to the last of the month, then there is a chance that the shopkeeper will sell it to someone else and take the profit and put some false amount in the diary. So to avoid this, this thesis proposed an smart ration card using RFID and GSM technique. In this system, the RFID tags are given to the customers instead of manual ration card. The customer has to show this automatic ration card, in which the detail of family members is stored, to the RFID reader.
This RFID reader is connected to the microcontroller. This microcontroller checks whether the user is authentic or not. If the user is authentic then the RFID reader reads the information in the card and instruct the shopkeeper to give this much amount of ration to the customer. Now, with the help of GSM technique, the information about the ration taken by the customer has been send to the government and to the customer also. So, in this system there is no need to enter manually the amount in the diary by the shopkeeper and the information about the amount taken will be send directly to the government without manual feeding. Hence, this automatic ration card is free from theft.
Ration card is a very necessary document for every citizen in India. This card is used at the ration shop for purchasing the ration at cheaper rates. This ration card also acts as address as well as identity proof. Ration card is needed when you apply for passport, PAN number, driving license etc. Hence, ration card is a very important document. But, the current ration card system has a drawback, that if the items are not sell up to the last of the month, then the shopkeeper will sell to someone else and take the profit into his pocket and put some false reading in the government record diary.
So to avoid this, we move to smart ration card using RFID and GSM technique. Every customer has given a RFID tag which acts as the ration card. This RFID tags has all the information of the customer, needed for taking the ration from the ration shops. The customer has to show this RFID tag to the RFID reader, which is attached to a microcontroller, which reads the information in the tag and accordingly instruct the shopkeeper to give this much amount of ration to that card holder. Then the GSM is used to send the information of ration taken to the government and also to the customer.
We will have two units. One is central locking system and Other is remote system to be locked. Both units are based around Atmega8 MCU (Atmega16/ 32 can also be used) on external 16MHz crystal. The level compatibility has been accomplished with the help of Dimmer and Relay.
Brief Description Of The component to be used:- component list
In this thesis work, I have made a smart ration card that has various advantages looking at the technological world that uses RFID and GSM techniques. The system is a combination of embedded and wireless technology. Now, it is not necessary to keep a check at the records and entry of the delivered ration manually. Hence, to avoid this manual operation, I have used smart card that is easy to carry and operate. There are various components that are used in the thesis to make the hardware of the system which are as follows-
- Microcontroller Atmel ATmega8
- Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
- Global system for mobile communication (GSM)
- Crystal Oscillator
- LED (3V)
Tracking circuit mainly consists of-
1. Microcontroller Atmel ATmega8-Atmega8 Microcontroller is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the Atmega8 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designed to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
2. RFID:This module directly connects to any microcontroller UART or through a RS232 converter to PC. It gives UART/Wiegand26 output. This RFID Reader Module works with any 125 KHz RFID tags.
3. GSM Module: This GSM Modem can accept any GSM network operator SIM card and act just like a mobile phone with its own unique phone number. Advantage of using this modem will be that you can use its RS232 port to communicate and develop embedded applications. Applications like SMS Control, data transfer, remote control and logging can be developed easily.
This GSM modem is a highly flexible plug and play quad band GSM modem for direct and easy integration to RS232 applications. Supports features like Voice, SMS, Data/Fax, GPRS and integrated TCP/IP stack.4. Crystal – Acrystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency.
5. Resistor – A resistoris a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current passing through it in accordance with Ohm's law:
V = IR
6. Capacitor -Acapacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated bya dielectric (insulator). When a potential difference (voltage) exists across the conductors, an electric field is present in the dielectric
7. Transformer – A device that transfers an alternating current from one circuit to one or more other circuits, usually with an increase (step-up transformer) or decrease (step-down transformer) of voltage. The input current is fed to a primary winding, the output being taken from a secondary winding or windings inductively linked to the primary
8. Diode – Inelectronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction. The term usually refers to a semiconductor diode, the most common type today, which is a crystal of semiconductor connected to two electrical terminals.
9. Regulator– Regulator used in the power supply is 7805. 7805is a voltage regulator. Voltage regulator is used because it may be possible that the input voltage will have fluctuations and would not be able to give fixed out. Hence, voltage regulator gives a constant amount of output voltage. The last two digits of 7805 voltage regulator show that it will provide an output voltage of +5V. Hence, the output of the regulator is 5V.
10. LED– It stands for light emitting diode. LED emits light when an electric current passes through them. LED used in the power supply is of 3.3V.
11. LCD: LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. LCD used in this project is 16×2. Here, 16×2 indicates that it can display 16 characters per line and there are two such lines. The reason for using LCD is that, it is economical, easily programmable and there is no limitation for displaying special and custom characters.
Firmware for the modules has been developed with the help of WinAVR compiler and AVR studio. The controller is programmed with help of AVRDUDE.
The software is written in C language and compiled using the open source compiler avr-gcc. For project management AVR Studio was used. I have used my fully buffered, interrupt driven USART library for usart related job. The library comes indiffer files.
APPLICATION AND FUTURE SCOPE
The implemented attendance system with is useful for following applications
• Government Ration Card Shop in all over state in India
The future work on this system is to attach a weighing system so that weighing of ration should be accurate. We can also develop an online database for large number of users and receive an acknowledgement for the delivered message.